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Allergic vs Non-Allergic Rhinitis

Did you know that there is more than one type of rhinitis?

There are several types of rhinitis, with the 2 main types being allergic and non-allergic rhinitis. To the everyday individual these 2 conditions may seem exactly the same, when in fact they have distinct differences upon thorough examination.

In order to distinguish between the 2 conditions, your health care practitioner will take a thorough history, perform a physical examination and request further diagnostic testing where necessary (such as skin testing or in-vitro IgE testing). The table below demonstrates the main differences between the conditions.

allergic vs non allergic coloured

References:
  1. http://www.worldallergy.org/professional/allergic_diseases_center/rhinitis/rhinitis_indepth.php
  2. http://www.entnet.org/content/allergic-rhinitis-sinusitis-and-rhinosinusitis
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What is allergic rhinitis?

Allergic rhinitis, also known as hay fever, is characterised as inflammation of the nose due to an overreaction of the immune system to allergens (substances that enter the body through the nose to trigger a reaction)1. Common examples of allergens include as pollen, dust or animal fur.

Evidence suggests that allergic reactions are caused by a combination of both genetic and environmental factors, with a genetic predisposition in individuals with a family history of atopic diseases like asthma and eczema2,4. The condition can develop begin at any age, although most people first develop symptoms in childhood or young adulthood2.

Types of allergic rhinitis:

There are two types of allergic rhinitis; seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) and perennial allergic rhinitis (PAR)3.21687668_1738801456416549_1208022269325681718_n

Seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR)

Symptoms develop during specific seasons such as spring, summer and early Autumn. Allergens that cause this type of rhinitis include pollens from trees, grasses, and weeds3,4.

Perennial allergic rhinitis (PAR)

Symptoms persist throughout the year and is difficult to diagnose as the symptoms can mimic sinusitis or respiratory infections2. Allergens that cause this type of allergic rhinitis include dust mites, cockroaches, animal dander, and fungi or mould3,4.

How does allergic rhinitis develop?

During allergic rhinitis, an allergen enters the nose and penetrates your nasal mucosa (the lining of your inner nasal cavity), where it binds to the IgE antibodies on the surface of immune cells (mast cells). In a normal person, this process is minimal but in a person suffering from allergic rhinitis the process is excessive, resulting in the release of histamine1,4.

Histamine causes inflammation and swelling of the nasal mucosa, excessive mucus production and blood vessel dilation. Excessive mucus production results in rhinorrhoea (runny nose) and blockage the nasal lacrimal duct (tear duct) resulting in water eyes and blockage of the eustachian tubes resulting in the sensation of blocked ears. Finally, the nerves in the nasal cavity may become irritated resulting in sneezing1.

In summary allergic rhinitis may result in 5 main symptoms1:

  • Nasal swelling and congestion
  • Water eyes
  • Blocked ears
  • Runny nose
  • Sneezing

 

References:
  1. http://www.worldallergy.org/professional/allergic_diseases_center/rhinitis/rhinitis_indepth.php
  2. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11449200
  3. http://acaai.org/allergies/types/hay-fever-rhinitis
  4. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1661616/
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Teenage Acne – the emotional toil

As a parent you worry about every aspect of your teenager’s life, from their safety and security to their physical and emotional state. During high school teenagers start coming into their personalities and define who they are and what they stand for. It is during this stage of life they are exposed to multiple pressures. They suffer under pressure to perform academically, pressure to perform in the sports arena as well as pressure of trying to fit in and look the part. Peer pressure and bullying are major concerns during this time and many children who are physically or socially different from others may be targeted.

Acne affects approximately 85% of the teenager population (between the ages of 12-25). Taking into consideration that so many people are affected by acne there should be a supportive environment for people suffering from this condition. Unfortunately this is not the case and bullying, teasing and social stigma are the common realities in schools. Acne can significantly a person’s confidence and self-esteem resulting in them being withdrawn or insecure. The severity of the acne does not necessarily directly relate to insecurity of the person. Even an individual who suffers from mild to moderate acne can be affected psychologically and in severe cases low self-esteem can even lead to depression.

Acne is an easily treatable condition and parents should take the necessary steps to reduce acne before it can affect their child’s confidence. Patients can use over the counter medication or even prescription medication to reduce symptoms. Dermalex Acne is an over the counter topical medication that has proven to reduce mild to moderate papules by 52%. Dermalex Acne forms an antiseptic shield on the skin to reduce p.acne bacterial growth; one of the major causes of acne formation. It also contains soothing and calming ingredients that help control the oil production, reduce the redness and soothe the skin.

Find Dermalex Acne Dis-Chem, Clicks and all leading independent pharmacies.

 

Reference List

http://www.nveee.org/statistics/

http://kidshealth.org/teen/your_body/skin_stuff/acne.html

http://www.dermalex.co.za/

http://edition.cnn.com/2010/HEALTH/11/29/acne.depression/

http://www.dermnetnz.org/acne/acne-psychological-effects.html